Cardiovascular outcomes in adults with hypertension with evening versus morning dosing of usual antihypertensives in the UK (TIME Study): a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point clinical trial

Isla S. Mackenzie, Amy Rogers, Neil R. Poulter, Bryan Williams, Morris J. Brown, David J. Webb, Ian Ford, David Rorie, Greg Guthrie, J. W. Kerr Grieve, Filippo Pigazzani, Peter M. Rothwell, Robin Young, Alex McConnachie, Allan D. Struthers, Chim C. Lang, Thomas M. MacDonald (Lead / Corresponding author),

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Background: Studies have suggested that evening dosing with antihypertensive therapy might have better outcomes than morning dosing. The Treatment in Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aimed to investigate whether evening dosing of usual antihypertensive medication improves major cardiovascular outcomes compared with morning dosing in patients with hypertension. Methods: The TIME study is a prospective, pragmatic, decentralised, parallel-group study in the UK, that recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) with hypertension and taking at least one antihypertensive medication. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1), without restriction, stratification, or minimisation, to take all of their usual antihypertensive medications in either the morning (0600–1000 h) or in the evening (2000–0000 h). Participants were followed up for the composite primary endpoint of vascular death or hospitalisation for non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Endpoints were identified by participant report or record linkage to National Health Service datasets and were adjudicated by a committee masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was assessed as the time to first occurrence of an event in the intention-to-treat population (ie, all participants randomly assigned to a treatment group). Safety was assessed in all participants who submitted at least one follow-up questionnaire. The study is registered with EudraCT (2011-001968-21) and ISRCTN (18157641), and is now complete. Findings: Between Dec 17, 2011, and June 5, 2018, 24 610 individuals were screened and 21 104 were randomly assigned to evening (n=10 503) or morning (n=10 601) dosing groups. Mean age at study entry was 65·1 years (SD 9·3); 12 136 (57·5%) participants were men; 8968 (42·5%) were women; 19 101 (90·5%) were White; 98 (0·5%) were Black, African, Caribbean, or Black British (ethnicity was not reported by 1637 [7·8%] participants); and 2725 (13·0%) had a previous cardiovascular disease. By the end of study follow-up (March 31, 2021), median follow-up was 5·2 years (IQR 4·9–5·7), and 529 (5·0%) of 10 503 participants assigned to evening treatment and 318 (3·0%) of 10 601 assigned to morning treatment had withdrawn from all follow-up. A primary endpoint event occurred in 362 (3·4%) participants assigned to evening treatment (0·69 events [95% CI 0·62–0·76] per 100 patient-years) and 390 (3·7%) assigned to morning treatment (0·72 events [95% CI 0·65–0·79] per 100 patient-years; unadjusted hazard ratio 0·95 [95% CI 0·83–1·10]; p=0·53). No safety concerns were identified. Interpretation: Evening dosing of usual antihypertensive medication was not different from morning dosing in terms of major cardiovascular outcomes. Patients can be advised that they can take their regular antihypertensive medications at a convenient time that minimises any undesirable effects. Funding: British Heart Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1425
Number of pages9
Issue number10361
Early online date11 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2022


  • Adult
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Adolescent
  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • State Medicine
  • Time and Motion Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Hypertension/chemically induced
  • Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
  • United Kingdom/epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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