Cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review of in vitro studies

Koy Chong Ng Kee Kwong, Jenna M Gregory, Suvankar Pal, Siddharthan Chandran, Arpan R Mehta (Lead / Corresponding author)

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10 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Various studies have suggested that a neurotoxic cerebrospinal fluid profile could be implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we systematically review the evidence for cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and explore its clinical correlates. We searched the following databases with no restrictions on publication date: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. All studies that investigated cytotoxicity in vitro following exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis could not be performed, and findings were instead narratively summarized. Twenty-eight studies were included in our analysis. Both participant characteristics and study conditions including cerebrospinal fluid concentration, exposure time and culture model varied considerably across studies. Of 22 studies assessing cell viability relative to controls, 19 studies reported a significant decrease following exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, while three early studies failed to observe any difference. Seven of eight studies evaluating apoptosis observed significant increases in the levels of apoptotic markers following exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with the remaining study reporting a qualitative difference. Although five studies investigated the possible relationship between cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity and patient characteristics, such as age, gender and disease duration, none demonstrated an association with any of the factors. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity is a feature of sporadic and possibly also of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Further research is, however, required to better characterize its underlying mechanisms and to establish its possible contribution to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathophysiology.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberfcaa121
Number of pages14
JournalBrain Communications
Volume2
Issue number2
Early online date6 Aug 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • CSF
  • ALS
  • cytotoxicity
  • in vitro
  • systematic review

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