Changing co-morbidity and increasing deprivation among people living with HIV: UK population-based cross-sectional study

Patricia McGettigan (Lead / Corresponding author), Daniel R. Morales (Lead / Corresponding author), David Moreno-Martos, Nashaba Matin

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Background: The great success of HIV treatments means that, increasingly, people living with HIV (PLHIV) are growing old enough to develop age-associated comorbid conditions. We investigated the evolution of comorbid conditions and demographics among PLHIV in England.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study linking Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care, hospitalization, death registry and Index of Multiple Deprivation data, we measured the prevalence of 304 individual health conditions, categorized into 47 condition groups (36 non-communicable, 11 communicable). Using logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the likelihood of each condition and condition group in 2015 versus 2008, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation.

Results: In 2015, there were 964 CPRD-registered PLHIV compared with 1987 in 2008; 62% were male and 38% female in both cohorts. The 2015 cohort was older, with 51.1% aged 45–64 years and 7.2% aged 65–84 years compared with 31.8% and 3.2%, respectively, in 2008. Deprivation was higher in 2015, at 23.9% (quintile 4) and 28.7% (quintile 5) compared with 5.8% and 6.6%, respectively, in 2008. Of 36 non-communicable condition groups, 14 (39%) occurred in ≥ 10% of PLHIV in 2015, of which seven were more likely in 2015 than in 2008: renal-chronic-kidney-disease [odds ratio (OR) = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.33–2.90); endocrine-obesity [OR = 1.76 (1.12–2.77)]; rheumatology [OR = 1.64 (1.30–2.07)]; dermatology [OR = 1.55(1.29–1.85)]; genito-urinary-gynaecological [OR = 1.44(1.18–1.76)]; eyes-ears/nose/throat [OR = 1.31(1.08–1.59)]; and gastro-intestinal conditions [OR = 1.28 (1.04–1.58)]. Two condition groups, respiratory-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.69)] and endocrine-diabetes [OR = 0.49 (0.34–0.70)], were less likely in 2015. Ten out of 11 communicable infectious condition groups were less likely in 2015.

Conclusions: Although infections in PLHIV have fallen, chronic non-communicable comorbidity is increasingly prevalent. Alongside the marked increases in deprivation and ageing, this study suggests that socio-economic measures in addition to healthcare provision are needed to achieve holistic health for PLHIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-324
Number of pages14
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue number3
Early online date19 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • communicable conditions
  • comorbid conditions
  • deprivation
  • HIV care provision
  • non-communicable conditions
  • people living with HIV (PLHIV)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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