### Abstract

The effect of an isolated submarine obstacle on the motion of fluid particles in a periodic external flow is studied within the framework of the barotropic, quasi-geostrophic approximation on f-plane. The concept of background currents advanced by Kozlov [1995. Background currents in geophysical hydrodynamics. Izvestia, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 31 (2), 245-250] is used to construct a dynamically consistent stream function satisfying the potential vorticity conservation law. It is shown that a system of two topographic vortices revolving about a rotation center can form in a circular external flow. Unsteady periodic perturbations, associated with either variations in the background current or deviations of the external flow from circulation, are analyzed. Unsteadiness in the external flow essentially complicates the pattern of the motion of fluid particles. Vortex-type quasi-periodic structures, identified with nonlinear resonances that form in Lagrangian equations of fluid particle advection, are examined. They either surround the stationary configuration by a vortex chain-a ringlet-like structure [Kennelly, M.A., Evans, R.H., Joyce, T.M., 1985. Small-scale cyclones on the periphery of Gulf Stream warm-core rings. J. Geophys. Res. 90(5), 8845-8857], or they form a complex-structure multivortex domain. Asymptotic estimates and numerical modeling are used to study the distribution and widths of the nonlinear resonance domains that appear under unsteady perturbations of different types. The onset of chaotic regimes owing to the overlapping of nonlinear resonance domains is analyzed. Transport fluxes determined by chaotic advection and barriers for transport (KAM-tori) and the conditions of their existence are studied. The relation of the rotation frequency of fluid particles on their initial position (when the dependence is calculated in the undisturbed system) is shown to completely determine the main features of the pattern of Lagrangian trajectories and chaotization effects. Because of nonlinear effects, the domain involved in quasi-periodic and chaotic motions can be much larger than the domain occupied by steady topographic vortices. The results of study by Sokolovskiy et al. [1988. On the influence of an isolated submerged obstacle on a barotropic tidal flow. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 88(1), 1-30] concerning the due regard on the irrotational background component as the necessary factor for the transportation of fluid particles from the vortex domain to infinity are confirmed. (C) 2008 The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics and Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 695-736 |

Number of pages | 42 |

Journal | Fluid Dynamics Research |

Volume | 40 |

Issue number | 10 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Oct 2008 |

### Keywords

- Chaotic advection
- Nonlinear resonances
- Quasi-geostrophic flows
- QUASI-GEOSTROPHIC FLOW
- DOUBLE-GYRE OCEAN
- MEANDERING JET
- SYNCHRONIZED CHAOS
- GULF-STREAM
- LAGRANGIAN TRANSPORT
- TOPOGRAPHIC VORTEX
- FLUID EXCHANGE
- LOBE DYNAMICS
- ROSSBY WAVES

## Cite this

*Fluid Dynamics Research*,

*40*(10), 695-736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluiddyn.2008.03.001