Activation of the serine kinase protein kinase D (PKD)/PKCmicro is controlled by the phosphorylation of two serine residues within its activation loop via a PKC-dependent signaling cascade. In this study we have identified the C-terminal serine 916 residue as an in vivo phosphorylation site within active PKD/PKCmu. An antibody that recognized PKD/PKCmu proteins specifically phosphorylated on the serine 916 residue was generated and used to show that phosphorylation of Ser-916 is induced by phorbol ester treatment of cells. Thus, the pS916 antibody is a useful tool to study the regulation of PKD/PKCmu activity in vivo. Antigen receptor ligation of T and B lymphocytes also induced phosphorylation of the serine 916 residue of PKD/PKCmu. Furthermore the regulatory FcgammaRIIB receptor, which mediates vital negative feedback signals to the B cell antigen receptor complex, inhibited the antigen receptor-induced activation and serine 916 phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu. The degree of serine 916 phosphorylation during lymphocyte activation and inhibition exactly correlated with the activation status of PKD/PKCmu. Moreover, using different mutants of PKD/PKCmu, we show that serine 916 is not trans-phosphorylated by an upstream kinase but is rather an autophosphorylation event that occurs following activation of PKD/PKCmu.