This article assesses the legal and political nature of decision-making with regards to nuclear energy policy in Turkey. The main focus is on the choice of nuclear technology and the associated safety and liability issues for Turkey’s new nuclear development plans. The article highlights the importance of legal certainty for both safety and liability in the nuclear energy sector. In particular, the liability regime in case of a nuclear accident must be clear and transparent. It also concludes that it is not the environmental impact assessment, safety concerns or liability regime but politics that is the key determinant in the choice of nuclear technology for a new nuclear project. In addition, with the planned use of the new financial model of Build-Own-Operate, this results in legal certainty being even more important for new nuclear development in Turkey.