The association of nonfunctional variants of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) with efficacy of statins has been a subject of debate. We evaluated whether three functional CETP variants influence statin efficacy. The effect of CETP genotype on achieved levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and total cholesterol during statin treatment was estimated by meta-analysis of the linear regression outcomes of three studies (11,021 individuals). The effect of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on statin response in protecting against myocardial infarction (MI) was estimated by meta-analysis of statin × SNP interaction terms from logistic regression in five studies (16,570 individuals). The enhancer SNP rs3764261 significantly increased HDLc by 0.02 mmol/l per T allele (P = 6 × 10) and reduced protection against MI by statins (interaction odds ratio (OR) = 1.19 per T allele; P = 0.04). Focusing on functional CETP variants, we showed that in carriers of the rs3764261 T variant, HDLc increased more during statin treatment, and protection against MI by statins appeared to be reduced as compared with those in noncarriers.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2013); advance online publication 30 October 2013. doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.194.