Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications

James S. Metcalf (Lead / Corresponding author), Geoffrey A. Codd

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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    Abstract

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria in aquatic, terrestrial, and aerial environments can occur alongside a wide range of additional health hazards including biological agents and synthetic materials. Cases of intoxications involving cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, with exposure to additional hazards, are discussed. Examples of the co-occurrence of cyanobacteria in such combinations are reviewed, including cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins plus algal toxins, microbial pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, metals, pesticides, and microplastics. Toxicity assessments of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and these additional agents, where investigated in bioassays and in defined combinations, are discussed and further research needs are identified.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number629
    Number of pages17
    JournalToxins
    Volume12
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020

    Keywords

    • cyanobacteria
    • co-occurrence
    • toxicity
    • plastics
    • metals
    • biocide

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