Adopting the distinction between hard and spaces of governance, this paper explores the nature and extent of integrated planning within the governance spaces of northern British Columbia and the extent to which the systems in place support innovative practices on the ground. Drawing on research undertaken in two rural settlements, the study reveals limited integration in formal planning structures and processes but an increasing recognition of the need for collaboration across boundaries in new and dynamic arenas. Soft spaces have created opportunities for local communities to be innovative in their quest for a more sustainable future, and these findings highlight a potential role for communities in securing integrated planning, not as invited participants in planning processes but as leaders or promoters of cross-sectoral initiatives.
Illsley, B., Jackson, T., Curry, J., & Rapaport, E. (2010). Community innovation in the soft spaces of planning. International Planning Studies, 15(4), 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2010.517288