Comparison of Limb and Joint Strengths between Tai Chi Chuan Players and Non- Tai Chi Chuan groups by Using a Force Sensor

Bijad Alqahtani, Graham Arnold, Abdullah Alzahrani, Khalid Alkhathami, Rayan Jastania, Weijie Wang (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Background: Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is popular in exercise, but little research has been done on limb and joint strength after the exercise. This study aimed to investigate whether TCC players have different limb and joint strengths in the upper and lower limbs from non-Tai Chi Chuan (NTCC).

: Twenty TCC players who have at least one year of experience playing TCC were compared with a group of 25 NTCC participants. A force sensor was used to measure forces in the lower and upper limbs. Maximum forces produced by the lower limbs was measured during a standing position with straight legs or were measured in a seated position. The maximum forces produced by the upper limbs were measured in a standing position at elbow and shoulder levels.

Results: The forces of the knee extensors in the TCC group were significantly higher (7.4%) than in the NTCC group; however, the forces of the knee flexors in the TCC group were significantly lower than the NTCC group. The heel-force in hip extension in the NTCC group was significantly higher (9.3%) than in TCC; the toe-force in the plantar flexion in the NTCC was significantly higher than in the TCC group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the hand-forces in the upper limbs.

: TCC routine movements strengthen the muscles related to knee extension, which are mainly related to bending knee performance during TCC exercise. For the healthy people between 42 and 78 years old, TCC benefits the enhancement of the strength for knee extension but not for the knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion and hip extension. There is no significant difference between the TCC and NTCC groups on the strength of upper limbs and joints. As a whole, the effect of Tai Chi Chuan exercise on the strengths in the limbs and joints is compromised. In the future, a study with larger sample size than this study is highly recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6169
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 18 May 2023


  • Tai Chi Chuan
  • force sensor
  • joint strength
  • lower limbs
  • upper limb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications


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