Two molecular marker technologies, random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR), were used to determine genetic diversity of 27 accessions of the wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. 19 primer combinations were used to generate RAMP fragments and 16 SSR loci were analysed. A high level of polymorphism was found with both kind of markers as revealed by the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) values obtained: 0.838 and 0.855 for RAMP and SSR, respectively. Genetic dissimilarities between genotypes were estimated from RAMP and SSR data. A lack of correlation was found between both sets of data. This was reflected in the two dendrograms obtained which presented accessions clustered differently. The results suggest that both sets of markers reveal genetic variation induced by different mechanisms. The dendrogram produced from the RAMP dissimilarity estimates showed most of the groups related to the geographic origin of the accessions.