Sister chromatid separation is initiated at anaphase onset by the activation of separase, which removes cohesins from chromosomes. However, it remains elusive how sister chromatid separation is completed along the entire chromosome length. Here we found that, during early anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sister chromatids separate gradually from centromeres to telomeres, accompanied by regional chromosome stretching and subsequent recoiling. The stretching results from residual cohesion between sister chromatids, which prevents their immediate separation. This residual cohesion is at least partly dependent on cohesins that have escaped removal by separase at anaphase onset. Meanwhile, recoiling of a stretched chromosome region requires condensins and generates forces to remove residual cohesion. We provide evidence that condensins promote chromosome recoiling directly in vivo, which is distinct from their known function in resolving sister chromatids. Our work identifies residual sister chromatid cohesion during early anaphase and reveals condensins' roles in chromosome recoiling, which eliminates residual cohesion to complete sister chromatid separation.
- BUDDING YEAST
- MITOTIC CHROMOSOMES