Confounded by confounding: separating association from causation

Huw T. O. Davies, Fiona L .R. Williams

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Health-care professionals need to be able to distinguish causal relationships from simple associations in two main areas: when unravelling the aetiology of diseases, and when assessing the effects of therapies, In each of these the presence of confounding can seriously mislead. This short report explains the nature of confounding and outlines criteria that can be applied to help distinguish causality from mere statistical associations.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)294-297
    Number of pages4
    JournalHospital Medicine
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 1999


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