Core outcomes for orofacial clefts: reconciling traditional and ICHOM minimum datasets

Peter A. Mossey (Lead / Corresponding author), Jason Lai, Maria Costanza Meazzini, Corstiaan Breugem, Hans Mark, Aebele B. Mink van der Molen, Martin Persson, Gareth Davies, Terumi Okada Ozawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Objective/design/setting: This retrospective study sought voluntary participation from leading cleft centres from Europe and Brazil regarding core outcome measures. The results of this study would inform the debate on core outcome consensus pertaining to the European Reference Network for rare diseases (ERN CRANIO) and achieve a core outcome set for cleft care providers worldwide.

Intervention/method: Five orofacial cleft (OFC) disciplines were identified, within which all of the International Consortium of Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) outcomes fall. One questionnaire was designed for each discipline and comprised 1. the relevant ICHOM's outcomes within that discipline, and 2. a series of questions targeted to clinicians. What core outcomes are currently measured and when, did these align with the ICHOM minimum, if not how did they differ, and would they recommend modified or additional outcomes?.

Results: For some disciplines participants agreed with the ICHOM minimums but urged for earlier and more frequent intervention. Some clinicians felt that some of the ICHOM standards were compatible but that different ages were preferred and for others the ICHOM standards were acceptable but developmental stages should be preferred to absolute time points.

Conclusion/implications: Core outcomes for OFC were supported in principle but there are differences between the ICHOM recommendations and the 2002 WHO global consensus. The latter are established in many centres with historical archives of OFC outcome data, and it was concluded that with some modifications ICHOM could be moulded into useful core outcomes data for inter-centre comparisons worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)671-679
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Orthodontics
Issue number6
Early online date4 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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