Cot/tpl2 is the only MAP3K that activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 in Toll-like receptor- activated macrophages. Here we show that Cot/tpl2 regulates RSK, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP phosphorylation after stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, or zymosan. The dissociation of the 4E-BP-eIF4E complex, a key event in the cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation, is dramatically reduced in LPS-stimulated Cot/tpl2-knockout (KO) macrophages versus LPS-stimulated wild-type (Wt) macrophages. Accordingly, after LPS activation, increased cap-dependent translation is observed in Wt macrophages but not in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages. In agreement with these data, Cot/ tpl2 increases the polysomal recruitment of the 5 TOP eEF1a and eEF2 mRNAs, as well as of inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factora (TNFa), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and KC in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, Cot/tpl2 deficiency also reduces total TNFa, IL-6, and KC mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which is concomitant with a decrease in their mRNA half-lives. Macrophages require rapid fine control of translation to provide an accurate and not self-damaging response to host infection, and our data show that Cot/tpl2 controls inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages.