Cryogenic surface resistance of copper

Investigation of the impact of surface treatments for secondary electron yield reduction

Sergio Calatroni (Lead / Corresponding author), Marco Arzeo, Sarah Aull, Marcel Himmerlich, Pedro Costa Pinto, Wilhelmus Vollenberg, Beniamino Di Girolamo, Paul Cruikshank, Paolo Chiggiato, David Bajek, Stefan Wackerow, Amin Abdolvand

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Abstract

The surface resistance of copper samples with an amorphous carbon (a-C) coating or with laser surface structuring, the surface treatments of choice for electron cloud suppression in critical cryogenic sectors of the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), has been measured for the first time at a cryogenic temperature using the quadrupole resonator at CERN. Three different frequencies of relevance for evaluating beam impedance effects, namely, 400, 800, and 1200 MHz, have been investigated. No significant increase in surface resistance is observed for the a-C coating, compared to plain copper. In the case of laser structuring, the surface resistance depends on the direction of the surface currents relative to the laser-engraved groove pattern. The increase is minimal for parallel patterns, but in the perpendicular case the surface resistance increases considerably. Radio frequency (rf) heating from wake losses would then also increase in the HL-LHC case; however, the reduction in the power deposited onto the cold surfaces thanks to electron cloud suppression would still outweigh this effect.
Original languageEnglish
Article number063101
Number of pages9
JournalPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2019

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surface treatment
cryogenics
copper
electron clouds
electrons
luminosity
radio frequency heating
retarding
cold surfaces
lasers
coatings
carbon
cryogenic temperature
plains
wakes
grooves
sectors
quadrupoles
resonators
impedance

Keywords

  • Condensed Matter and Materials Physcis
  • Accelerators and Beams

Cite this

Calatroni, Sergio ; Arzeo, Marco ; Aull, Sarah ; Himmerlich, Marcel ; Costa Pinto, Pedro ; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus ; Di Girolamo, Beniamino ; Cruikshank, Paul ; Chiggiato, Paolo ; Bajek, David ; Wackerow, Stefan ; Abdolvand, Amin. / Cryogenic surface resistance of copper : Investigation of the impact of surface treatments for secondary electron yield reduction. In: Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams. 2019 ; Vol. 22, No. 6.
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title = "Cryogenic surface resistance of copper: Investigation of the impact of surface treatments for secondary electron yield reduction",
abstract = "The surface resistance of copper samples with an amorphous carbon (a-C) coating or with laser surface structuring, the surface treatments of choice for electron cloud suppression in critical cryogenic sectors of the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), has been measured for the first time at a cryogenic temperature using the quadrupole resonator at CERN. Three different frequencies of relevance for evaluating beam impedance effects, namely, 400, 800, and 1200 MHz, have been investigated. No significant increase in surface resistance is observed for the a-C coating, compared to plain copper. In the case of laser structuring, the surface resistance depends on the direction of the surface currents relative to the laser-engraved groove pattern. The increase is minimal for parallel patterns, but in the perpendicular case the surface resistance increases considerably. Radio frequency (rf) heating from wake losses would then also increase in the HL-LHC case; however, the reduction in the power deposited onto the cold surfaces thanks to electron cloud suppression would still outweigh this effect.",
keywords = "Condensed Matter and Materials Physcis, Accelerators and Beams",
author = "Sergio Calatroni and Marco Arzeo and Sarah Aull and Marcel Himmerlich and {Costa Pinto}, Pedro and Wilhelmus Vollenberg and {Di Girolamo}, Beniamino and Paul Cruikshank and Paolo Chiggiato and David Bajek and Stefan Wackerow and Amin Abdolvand",
note = "The authors acknowledge the contribution of Veronica Del Pozo Romano (CERN) for the simulations of rf field profile in the QPR allowing to define the area to be laser treated and the useful discussions with Sergey Arsenyev (CERN) on beam impedance. The laser structuring at the University of Dundee was conducted under the aegis of grants and financial support from the STFC (Grant No. ST/P00086X/1) and CERN (Collaboration Agreement No. KN3362).",
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Cryogenic surface resistance of copper : Investigation of the impact of surface treatments for secondary electron yield reduction. / Calatroni, Sergio (Lead / Corresponding author); Arzeo, Marco; Aull, Sarah; Himmerlich, Marcel; Costa Pinto, Pedro; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Cruikshank, Paul; Chiggiato, Paolo; Bajek, David; Wackerow, Stefan; Abdolvand, Amin.

In: Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 22, No. 6, 063101, 20.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cryogenic surface resistance of copper

T2 - Investigation of the impact of surface treatments for secondary electron yield reduction

AU - Calatroni, Sergio

AU - Arzeo, Marco

AU - Aull, Sarah

AU - Himmerlich, Marcel

AU - Costa Pinto, Pedro

AU - Vollenberg, Wilhelmus

AU - Di Girolamo, Beniamino

AU - Cruikshank, Paul

AU - Chiggiato, Paolo

AU - Bajek, David

AU - Wackerow, Stefan

AU - Abdolvand, Amin

N1 - The authors acknowledge the contribution of Veronica Del Pozo Romano (CERN) for the simulations of rf field profile in the QPR allowing to define the area to be laser treated and the useful discussions with Sergey Arsenyev (CERN) on beam impedance. The laser structuring at the University of Dundee was conducted under the aegis of grants and financial support from the STFC (Grant No. ST/P00086X/1) and CERN (Collaboration Agreement No. KN3362).

PY - 2019/6/20

Y1 - 2019/6/20

N2 - The surface resistance of copper samples with an amorphous carbon (a-C) coating or with laser surface structuring, the surface treatments of choice for electron cloud suppression in critical cryogenic sectors of the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), has been measured for the first time at a cryogenic temperature using the quadrupole resonator at CERN. Three different frequencies of relevance for evaluating beam impedance effects, namely, 400, 800, and 1200 MHz, have been investigated. No significant increase in surface resistance is observed for the a-C coating, compared to plain copper. In the case of laser structuring, the surface resistance depends on the direction of the surface currents relative to the laser-engraved groove pattern. The increase is minimal for parallel patterns, but in the perpendicular case the surface resistance increases considerably. Radio frequency (rf) heating from wake losses would then also increase in the HL-LHC case; however, the reduction in the power deposited onto the cold surfaces thanks to electron cloud suppression would still outweigh this effect.

AB - The surface resistance of copper samples with an amorphous carbon (a-C) coating or with laser surface structuring, the surface treatments of choice for electron cloud suppression in critical cryogenic sectors of the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), has been measured for the first time at a cryogenic temperature using the quadrupole resonator at CERN. Three different frequencies of relevance for evaluating beam impedance effects, namely, 400, 800, and 1200 MHz, have been investigated. No significant increase in surface resistance is observed for the a-C coating, compared to plain copper. In the case of laser structuring, the surface resistance depends on the direction of the surface currents relative to the laser-engraved groove pattern. The increase is minimal for parallel patterns, but in the perpendicular case the surface resistance increases considerably. Radio frequency (rf) heating from wake losses would then also increase in the HL-LHC case; however, the reduction in the power deposited onto the cold surfaces thanks to electron cloud suppression would still outweigh this effect.

KW - Condensed Matter and Materials Physcis

KW - Accelerators and Beams

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.063101

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.063101

M3 - Article

VL - 22

JO - Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams

JF - Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams

SN - 1098-4402

IS - 6

M1 - 063101

ER -