Crystal structure of the WD40 domain dimer of LRRK2

Pengfei Zhang, Ying Fan, Heng Ru, Li Wang, Venkat Giri Magupalli, Susan S. Taylor, Dario R Alessi, Hao Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein with both a Ras of complex (ROC) domain and a kinase domain (KD) and, therefore, exhibits both GTPase and kinase activities. Human genetics studies have linked LRRK2 as a major genetic contributor to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder that inflicts millions worldwide. The C-terminal region of LRRK2 is a Trp-Asp-40 (WD40) domain with poorly defined biological functions but has been implicated in microtubule interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the WD40 domain of human LRRK2 at 2.6-Å resolution, which reveals a seven-bladed WD40 fold. The structure displays a dimeric assembly in the crystal, which we further confirm by measurements in solution. We find that structure-based and PD-associated disease mutations in the WD40 domain including the common G2385R polymorphism mainly compromise dimer formation. Assessment of full-length LRRK2 kinase activity by measuring phosphorylation of Rab10, a member of the family of Rab GTPases known to be important kinase substrates of LRRK2, shows enhancement of kinase activity by several dimerization-defective mutants including G2385R, although dimerization impairment does not always result in kinase activation. Furthermore, mapping of phylogenetically conserved residues onto the WD40 domain structure reveals surface patches that may be important for additional functions of LRRK2. Collectively, our analyses provide insights for understanding the structures and functions of LRRK2 and suggest the potential utility of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in treating PD patients with WD40 domain mutations.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1579-1584
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume116
Issue number5
Early online date11 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Leucine
Phosphotransferases
Parkinson Disease
Dimerization
rab GTP-Binding Proteins
Mutation
GTP Phosphohydrolases
Movement Disorders
Medical Genetics
Microtubules
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Phosphorylation

Keywords

  • Crystal structure
  • LRRK2
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • WD40

Cite this

Zhang, Pengfei ; Fan, Ying ; Ru, Heng ; Wang, Li ; Magupalli, Venkat Giri ; Taylor, Susan S. ; Alessi, Dario R ; Wu, Hao. / Crystal structure of the WD40 domain dimer of LRRK2. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 ; Vol. 116, No. 5. pp. 1579-1584.
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abstract = "Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein with both a Ras of complex (ROC) domain and a kinase domain (KD) and, therefore, exhibits both GTPase and kinase activities. Human genetics studies have linked LRRK2 as a major genetic contributor to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder that inflicts millions worldwide. The C-terminal region of LRRK2 is a Trp-Asp-40 (WD40) domain with poorly defined biological functions but has been implicated in microtubule interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the WD40 domain of human LRRK2 at 2.6-{\AA} resolution, which reveals a seven-bladed WD40 fold. The structure displays a dimeric assembly in the crystal, which we further confirm by measurements in solution. We find that structure-based and PD-associated disease mutations in the WD40 domain including the common G2385R polymorphism mainly compromise dimer formation. Assessment of full-length LRRK2 kinase activity by measuring phosphorylation of Rab10, a member of the family of Rab GTPases known to be important kinase substrates of LRRK2, shows enhancement of kinase activity by several dimerization-defective mutants including G2385R, although dimerization impairment does not always result in kinase activation. Furthermore, mapping of phylogenetically conserved residues onto the WD40 domain structure reveals surface patches that may be important for additional functions of LRRK2. Collectively, our analyses provide insights for understanding the structures and functions of LRRK2 and suggest the potential utility of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in treating PD patients with WD40 domain mutations.",
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Crystal structure of the WD40 domain dimer of LRRK2. / Zhang, Pengfei; Fan, Ying; Ru, Heng; Wang, Li; Magupalli, Venkat Giri; Taylor, Susan S.; Alessi, Dario R; Wu, Hao.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, No. 5, 29.01.2019, p. 1579-1584.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Crystal structure of the WD40 domain dimer of LRRK2

AU - Zhang, Pengfei

AU - Fan, Ying

AU - Ru, Heng

AU - Wang, Li

AU - Magupalli, Venkat Giri

AU - Taylor, Susan S.

AU - Alessi, Dario R

AU - Wu, Hao

N1 - We thank Dongchun Ni for suggestions regarding anomalous diffraction data processing. This work was supported by The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research [Grants 11211 (to H.W.) and 6986 (to D.R.A.)] and by the Medical Research Council [Grant MC_UU_12016/2 (to D.R.A.)], and based upon research conducted at the Northeastern Collaborative Access Team beamlines, which are funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences from National Institutes of Health Grant P30 GM124165. The Pilatus 6M detector on 24-ID-C beam line is funded by a NIH-Office of Research Infrastructure Programs High-End Instrumentation Grant S10 RR029205. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

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Y1 - 2019/1/29

N2 - Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein with both a Ras of complex (ROC) domain and a kinase domain (KD) and, therefore, exhibits both GTPase and kinase activities. Human genetics studies have linked LRRK2 as a major genetic contributor to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder that inflicts millions worldwide. The C-terminal region of LRRK2 is a Trp-Asp-40 (WD40) domain with poorly defined biological functions but has been implicated in microtubule interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the WD40 domain of human LRRK2 at 2.6-Å resolution, which reveals a seven-bladed WD40 fold. The structure displays a dimeric assembly in the crystal, which we further confirm by measurements in solution. We find that structure-based and PD-associated disease mutations in the WD40 domain including the common G2385R polymorphism mainly compromise dimer formation. Assessment of full-length LRRK2 kinase activity by measuring phosphorylation of Rab10, a member of the family of Rab GTPases known to be important kinase substrates of LRRK2, shows enhancement of kinase activity by several dimerization-defective mutants including G2385R, although dimerization impairment does not always result in kinase activation. Furthermore, mapping of phylogenetically conserved residues onto the WD40 domain structure reveals surface patches that may be important for additional functions of LRRK2. Collectively, our analyses provide insights for understanding the structures and functions of LRRK2 and suggest the potential utility of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in treating PD patients with WD40 domain mutations.

AB - Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein with both a Ras of complex (ROC) domain and a kinase domain (KD) and, therefore, exhibits both GTPase and kinase activities. Human genetics studies have linked LRRK2 as a major genetic contributor to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder that inflicts millions worldwide. The C-terminal region of LRRK2 is a Trp-Asp-40 (WD40) domain with poorly defined biological functions but has been implicated in microtubule interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the WD40 domain of human LRRK2 at 2.6-Å resolution, which reveals a seven-bladed WD40 fold. The structure displays a dimeric assembly in the crystal, which we further confirm by measurements in solution. We find that structure-based and PD-associated disease mutations in the WD40 domain including the common G2385R polymorphism mainly compromise dimer formation. Assessment of full-length LRRK2 kinase activity by measuring phosphorylation of Rab10, a member of the family of Rab GTPases known to be important kinase substrates of LRRK2, shows enhancement of kinase activity by several dimerization-defective mutants including G2385R, although dimerization impairment does not always result in kinase activation. Furthermore, mapping of phylogenetically conserved residues onto the WD40 domain structure reveals surface patches that may be important for additional functions of LRRK2. Collectively, our analyses provide insights for understanding the structures and functions of LRRK2 and suggest the potential utility of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in treating PD patients with WD40 domain mutations.

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