Cytochrome P450s CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 can metabolize a broad range of foreign compounds and drugs. However, these enzymes have significantly overlapping substrate specificities. To establish their relative contribution to drug metabolism in vivo, we used a combination of mice humanized for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 together with mice nulled at the Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 gene loci. CYP1A2 was constitutively expressed in the liver, and both proteins were highly inducible by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) in a number of tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, and small intestine. Using the differential inhibition of the human enzymes by quinidine, we developed a method to distinguish the relative contribution of CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 in the metabolism of drugs and foreign compounds. Both enzymes made a significant contribution to the hepatic metabolism of the probe compounds 7-methoxy and 7-ehthoxyresorufin in microsomal fractions from animals treated with TCDD. This enzyme kinetic approach allows modeling of the CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and non-CYP1A contribution to the metabolism of any substrate at any substrate, inhibitor, or enzyme concentration and, as a consequence, can be integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model. The validity of the model can then be tested in humanized mice in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are important in defining the efficacy and toxicity/carcinogenicity of drugs and foreign compounds. In light of differences in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors, it is of central importance to understand their relative role in foreign compound metabolism. To address this issue, we have generated mice humanized or nulled at the Cyp1a gene locus and, through the use of these mouse lines and selective inhibitors, developed an enzyme kinetic-based model to enable more accurate prediction of the fate of new chemicals in humans and which can be validated in vivo using mice humanized for cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism.
- cytochrome P450
- enzyme inhibitors
- enzyme kinetics
- genetically modified animal models
- pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling/PKPD
- physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling/PBPK