Dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in Gaza Strip children

Lamis Abuhaloob, Y. Abed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dental Fluorosis is a serious oral health problem in Gaza Strip. Objectives: To estimate Dental Fluorosis prevalence and severity in Gaza Strip, to explore its associated risk factors, and to examine the association between Dental Fluorosis and fluoride concentration in Municipal Wells of Drinking Water (MWDW). Methods: A cross sectional study recruited stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18ys and their mothers. Data was collected by interviewed questionnaires. Dental Fluorosis prevalence and severity were determined using Thyllstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Chi-square test examined the association between the study variables (P-value <0.05). Results: Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis was 78%. Prevalence of sever Dental Fluorosis is significantly higher among children receiving fluoride concentration in MWDW >1 ppm (P-value <0.005). Living near main road (P-value <0.013) and using open fire as heating system (P-value <0.001) significantly increased the risk. Factors as being child of Professional and Managerial fathers (P-value <0.002), covering brushes with pea size fluoridated toothpaste (P-value <0.001), and not swallowing fluoridated toothpaste (P-value <0.043) significantly reduced the Dental Fluorosis risk. Conclusion: Health and environmental preventive interventions for high fluoride exposure in Gaza Strip should consider all Dental Fluorosis’s risk factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-106
JournalBirzeit Water Drops - Official Bulletin of Institute of Environmental and Water Studies
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Dental Fluorosis
  • Palestinian Children
  • Gaza Strip
  • Water Fluoride


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