Dentists are now required to treat HIV-positive patients in their practices. Dentists working in high HIV prevalence areas treat HIV seropositive patients but what affects this treatment decision? The aim of this study is to investigate the role of conflict with regard to treatment decisions. All 371 dentists practising in Lothian were sent a questionnaire. Two hundred and fifteen questionnaires were returned giving a valid response rate of 60%. The findings of this study would support the view that dentists are able to use their scientific knowledge which reduces anxieties and assists in the resolution of their conflict with regard to the treatment of HIV seropositive patients.