Deprivation and chronic kidney disease-a review of the evidence

Christopher H Grant, Ehsan Salim, Jennifer S Lees, Kate I Stevens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


The relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and health is inequitable. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an archetypal disease of inequality, being more common amongst those living in deprivation. The prevalence of CKD is rising driven by an increase in lifestyle-related conditions. This narrative review describes deprivation and its association with adverse outcomes in adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD including disease progression, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. We explore the social determinants of health and individual lifestyle factors to address whether patients with CKD who are socioeconomically deprived have poorer outcomes than those of higher socioeconomic status. We describe whether observed differences in outcomes are associated with income, employment, educational attainment, health literacy, access to healthcare, housing, air pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol use or aerobic exercise. The impact of socioeconomic deprivation in adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD is complex, multi-faceted and frequently under-explored within the literature. There is evidence that patients with CKD who are socioeconomically deprived have faster disease progression, higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. This appears to be the result of both socioeconomic and individual lifestyle factors. However, there is a paucity of studies and methodological limitations. Extrapolation of findings to different societies and healthcare systems is challenging, however, the disproportionate effect of deprivation in patients with CKD necessitates a call to action. Further empirical study is warranted to establish the true cost of deprivation in CKD to patients and societies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbersfad028
Pages (from-to)1081-1091
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Kidney Journal
Issue number7
Early online date28 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • CKD
  • chronic renal failure
  • chronic renal insufficiency
  • exercise
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


Dive into the research topics of 'Deprivation and chronic kidney disease-a review of the evidence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this