We have used a structure-based approach to design a novel series of non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 RT (NNRTIs). Detailed analysis of a wide range of crystal structures of HIV-1 RT-NNRTI complexes together with data on drug resistance mutations has identified factors important for tight binding of inhibitors and resilience to mutations. Using this approach we have designed and synthesized a novel series of quinolone NNRTIs. Crystal structure analysis of four of these compounds in complexes with HIV-1 RT confirms the predicted binding modes. Members of this quinolone series retain high activity against the important resistance mutations in RT at Tyr181Cys and Leu100Ile.