Designing, conducting, and reporting reproducible animal experiments

Emma Wilson, Fiona J. Ramage, Kimberley E Wever, Emily Sena, Malcolm Robert Macleod, Gillian Laura Currie (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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In biomedicine and many other fields, there are growing concerns around the reproducibility of research findings, with many researchers being unable to replicate their own or others' results. This raises important questions as to the validity and usefulness of much published research. In this review, we aim to engage researchers in the issue of research reproducibility and equip them with the necessary tools to increase the reproducibility of their research. We first highlight the causes and potential impact of non-reproducible research and emphasise the benefits of working reproducibly for the researcher and broader research community. We address specific targets for improvement and steps that individual researchers can take to increase the reproducibility of their work. We next provide recommendations for improving the design and conduct of experiments, focusing on in vivo animal experiments. We describe common sources of poor internal validity of experiments and offer practical guidance for limiting these potential sources of bias at different experimental stages, as well as discussing other important considerations during experimental design. We provide a list of key resources available to researchers to improve experimental design, conduct, and reporting. We then discuss the importance of open research practices such as study preregistration and the use of preprints and describe recommendations around data management and sharing. Our review emphasises the importance of reproducible work and aims to empower every individual researcher to contribute to the reproducibility of research in their field.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere220330
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Endocrinology
Issue number1
Early online dateApr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • reproducibility
  • open research
  • animal research
  • experimental design


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