Blackleg and soft rot of potato, caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp., are major production constraints in many potato-growing regions of the world. Despite advances in our understanding of the causative organisms, disease epidemiology, and control, blackleg remains the principal cause of down- grading and rejection of potato seed in classification schemes across Northern Europe and many other parts of the world. Although symptom recognition is relatively straightforward and is applied universally in seed classification schemes, attributing disease to a specific organism is problematic and can only be achieved through the use of diagnostics. Similarly as disease spread is largely through the movement of asymptomatically infected seed tubers and, possibly in the case of Dickeya spp., irrigation waters, accurate and sensitive diagnostics are a prerequisite for detection. This chapter describes the diagnostic pathway that can be applied to identify the principal potato pathogens within the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya.