Over the last 20 years, research has questioned how well equipped newly qualified social workers are in relation to child care and protection. Recent inquiries have highlighted that some social workers have not recognised their responsibilities towards children and young people when they encounter them in the course of their duties. In England, Lord Laming's (2009) report The Protection of Children in England, following the death of Peter Connelly in Haringey, recommended a specialist child protection route as part of the social work degree and re-opened the debate about the benefits of specialism versus genericism. In Scotland, when faced with similar challenges, Key Capabilities in Child Care and Protection were introduced to ensure that all social workers at the point of qualifying can evidence their knowledge and skills in relation to child care and protection. This paper describes their development.