Development and validation of a cardiovascular risk prediction model in type 1 diabetes

Stuart J. McGurnaghan (Lead / Corresponding author), Paul M. McKeigue, Stephanie H. Read, Stefan Franzen, Ann-Marie Svensson, Marco Colombo, Shona Livingstone, Bassam Farran, Thomas M. Caparrotta, Luke A. K. Blackbourn, Joseph Mellor, Ioanna Thoma, Naveed Sattar, Sarah H. Wild, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Helen M. Colhoun (Lead / Corresponding author),

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
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Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to report current rates of CVD in type 1 diabetes and to develop a CVD risk prediction tool for type 1 diabetes.

Methods: A cohort of 27,527 people with type 1 diabetes without prior CVD was derived from the national register in Scotland. Incident CVD events during 199,552 person-years of follow-up were ascertained using hospital admissions and death registers. A Poisson regression model of CVD was developed and then validated in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (n = 33,183). We compared the percentage with a high 10 year CVD risk (i.e., ≥10%) using the model with the percentage eligible for statins using current guidelines by age.

Results: The age-standardised rate of CVD per 100,000 person-years was 4070 and 3429 in men and women, respectively, with type 1 diabetes in Scotland, and 4014 and 3956 in men and women in Sweden. The final model was well calibrated (Hosmer–Lemeshow test p > 0.05) and included a further 22 terms over a base model of age, sex and diabetes duration (C statistic 0.82; 95% CI 0.81, 0.83). The model increased the base model C statistic from 0.66 to 0.80, from 0.60 to 0.75 and from 0.62 to 0.68 in those aged <40, 40–59 and ≥ 60 years, respectively (all p values <0.005). The model required minimal calibration in Sweden and had a C statistic of 0.85. Under current guidelines, >90% of those aged 20–39 years and 100% of those ≥40 years with type 1 diabetes were eligible for statins, but it was not until age 65 upwards that 100% had a modelled risk of CVD ≥10% in 10 years.

Conclusions/interpretation: A prediction tool such as that developed here can provide individualised risk predictions. This 10 year CVD risk prediction tool could facilitate patient discussions regarding appropriate statin prescribing. Apart from 10 year risk, such discussions may also consider longer-term CVD risk, the potential for greater benefits from early vs later statin intervention, the potential impact on quality of life of an early CVD event and evidence on safety, all of which could influence treatment decisions, particularly in younger people with type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2001-2011
Number of pages11
Early online date9 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Cardiovascular
  • Risk prediction
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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