Development of liquid culture media mimicking the conditions of sinuses and lungs in cystic fibrosis and health: [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

Dilem Ruhluel, Siobhan O'Brien, Joanne L Fothergill, Daniel R Neill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
36 Downloads (Pure)


The respiratory tract is a compartmentalised and heterogenous environment. The nasopharynx and sinuses of the upper airways have distinct properties from the lungs and these differences may shape bacterial adaptation and evolution. Upper airway niches act as early colonisation sites for respiratory bacterial pathogens, including those, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that can go on to establish chronic infection of the lungs in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Despite the importance of upper airway environments in facilitating early adaptation to host environments, currently available in vitro models for study of respiratory infection in CF focus exclusively on the lungs. Furthermore, animal models, widely used to bridge the gap between in vitro systems and the clinical scenario, do not allow the upper and lower airways to be studied in isolation. We have developed a suite of culture media reproducing key features of the upper and lower airways, for the study of bacterial adaptation and evolution in different respiratory environments. For both upper and lower airway-mimicking media, we have developed formulations that reflect airway conditions in health and those that reflect the altered environment of the CF respiratory tract. Here, we describe the development and validation of these media and their use for study of genetic and phenotypic adaptations in P. aeruginosa during growth under upper or lower airway conditions in health and in CF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1007
Number of pages42
Early online date7 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Animals
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pseudomonas Infections
  • Culture Media
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics
  • Lung
  • 3Rs
  • in vitro models
  • lungs
  • sinuses
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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