Projects per year
Diabetes is a disease defined on the basis of hyperglycemia. There are monogenic forms of diabetes where defining the genetic cause has a dramatic impact on treatment—with patients being able to transition from insulin to sulfonylureas. However, the majority of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. This review outlines the robust evidence accrued to date for pharmacogenetics of metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors but highlights that these variants will only be of clinical utility when the genotype is already known at the point of prescribing. The future of pharmacogenetics in diabetes and other common complex disease relies on a paradigm shift—that of preemptive panel genotyping and use of clinical decision support tools to assimilate this genetic information with other clinical phenotypic data and to present this information simply to the prescriber. Given the recent dramatic fall in genotyping costs, this future is not far off.