Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are a family of neuron-enriched proteins that regulate neurite outgrowth and growth cone dynamics. Here, we show that Cdk5 phosphorylates CRMP1, CRMP2, and CRMP4, priming for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3 in vitro. In contrast, DYRK2 phosphorylates and primes CRMP4 only. The Cdk5 and DYRK2 inhibitor purvalanol decreases the phosphorylation of CRMP proteins in neurons, whereas CRMP1 and CRMP2, but not CRMP4, phosphorylation is decreased in Cdk5(-/-) cortices. Stimulation of neuroblastoma cells with IGF1 or TPA decreases GSK3 activity concomitantly with CRMP2 and CRMP4 phosphorylation. Conversely, increased GSK3 activity is not sufficient to increase CRMP phosphorylation. However, the growth cone collapse-inducing protein Sema3A increases Cdk5 activity and promotes phosphorylation of CRMP2 ( but not CRMP4). Therefore, inhibition of GSK3 alters phosphorylation of all CRMP isoforms; however, individual isoforms can be differentially regulated by their respective priming kinase. This is the first GSK3 substrate found to be regulated in this manner and may explain the hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 observed in Alzheimer's disease.