The full extent of genital tract trauma in spontaneous births is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to describe the range and extent of childbirth trauma and related postnatal pain using data from a large randomized clinical trial of perineal management techniques (n = 5471).
Albers, L., Garcia, J., Renfrew, M., McCandlish, R., & Elbourne, D. (1999). Distribution of genital tract trauma in childbirth and related postnatal pain. Birth, 26(1), 11-7. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-536x.1999.00011.x