DNA Metabarcoding and Isolation by Baiting Complement Each Other in Revealing Phytophthora Diversity in Anthropized and Natural Ecosystems

Federico La Spada, Peter J. A. Cock, Eva Randall, Antonella Pane, David E. L. Cooke (Lead / Corresponding author), Santa Olga Cacciola

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    14 Citations (Scopus)
    34 Downloads (Pure)


    Isolation techniques supplemented by sequencing of DNA from axenic cultures have provided a robust methodology for the study of Phytophthora communities in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Recently, metabarcoding approaches have emerged as new paradigms for the detection of Phytophthora species in environmental samples. In this study, Illumina DNA metabarcoding and a conventional leaf baiting isolation technique were compared to unravel the variability of Phytophthora communities in different environments. Overall, 39 rhizosphere soil samples from a natural, a semi-natural and a horticultural small-scale ecosystem, respectively, were processed by both baiting and metabarcoding. Using both detection techniques, 28 out of 39 samples tested positive for Phytophthora. Overall, 1,406,613 Phytophthora internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences and 155 Phytophthora isolates were obtained, which grouped into 21 taxa, five retrieved exclusively by baiting (P. bilorbang; P. cryptogea; P. gonapodyides; P. parvispora and P. pseudocryptogea), 12 exclusively by metabarcoding (P. asparagi; P. occultans; P. psycrophila; P. syringae; P. aleatoria/P. cactorum; P. castanetorum/P. quercina; P. iranica-like; P. unknown sp. 1; P. unknown sp. 2; P. unknown sp. 3; P. unknown sp. 4; P. unknown sp. 5) and four with both techniques (P. citrophthora, P. multivora, P. nicotianae and P. plurivora). Both techniques complemented each other in describing the variability of Phytophthora communities from natural and managed ecosystems and revealing the presence of rare or undescribed Phytophthora taxa.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number330
    Number of pages21
    JournalJournal of Fungi
    Issue number4
    Early online date22 Mar 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


    • ASVs
    • DNA sequencing
    • Illumina
    • botanical garden
    • citrus orchards
    • detection
    • eDNA
    • leaf baiting
    • metabarcoding
    • nature reserve
    • new species
    • rhizosphere soil

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
    • Plant Science
    • Microbiology (medical)


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