The authors present an extremely rare finding of a duplicated extensor pollicus longus (EPL) muscle belly and tendon of the thumb, in a patient undergoing extensor synovectomy for rheumatoid disease. The previous reported cases are briefly reviewed, and the specific anatomical findings are presented. The case history of duplicated EPL muscle and tendon is reported alongwith the interoperative findings. Intraoperative photographs are used to display the anomaly clearly. A literature review was conducted to determine the reported frequency of such an apparently rare anatomical anomaly.