Dynamic CO 2 and pH levels in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters

Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms

John A. Raven, Christopher S. Gobler, Per Juel Hansen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 results in higher equilibrium concentrations of dissolved CO 2 in natural waters, with corresponding increases in hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations and decreases in hydroxyl ion and carbonate concentrations. Superimposed on these climate change effects is the dynamic nature of carbon cycling in coastal zones, which can lead to seasonal and diel changes in pH and CO 2 concentrations that can exceed changes expected for open ocean ecosystems by the end of the century. Among harmful algae, i.e. some species and/or strains of Cyanobacteria, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae, the occurrence of a CO 2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) is the most frequent mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in natural waters in equilibrium with the present atmosphere (400 μmol CO 2 mol −1 total gas), with varying phenotypic modification of the CCM. No data on CCMs are available for Raphidophyceae or the brown tide Pelagophyceae. Several HAB species and/or strains respond to increased CO 2 concentrations with increases in growth rate and/or cellular toxin content, however, others are unaffected. Beyond the effects of altered C concentrations and speciation on HABs, changes in pH in natural waters are likely to have profound effects on algal physiology. This review outlines the implications of changes in inorganic cycling for HABs in coastal zones, and reviews the knowns and unknowns with regard to how HABs can be expected to ocean acidification. We further point to the large regions of uncertainty with regard to this evolving field.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalHarmful Algae
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Apr 2019

    Fingerprint

    inland waters
    concentrating
    brackish water
    algal blooms
    coastal water
    algal bloom
    algae
    coastal zone
    brown tide
    hydrogen ions
    ion
    Bacillariophyceae
    carbon
    inorganic carbon
    bicarbonates
    open ocean
    bicarbonate
    water
    toxin
    carbonates

    Keywords

    • Acclimation
    • Adaptation
    • Algal toxins
    • Eutrophication
    • Experimental evolution
    • Global warming
    • Harmful algae
    • Inorganic carbon
    • Ocean acidification

    Cite this

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    title = "Dynamic CO 2 and pH levels in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters: Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms",
    abstract = "Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 results in higher equilibrium concentrations of dissolved CO 2 in natural waters, with corresponding increases in hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations and decreases in hydroxyl ion and carbonate concentrations. Superimposed on these climate change effects is the dynamic nature of carbon cycling in coastal zones, which can lead to seasonal and diel changes in pH and CO 2 concentrations that can exceed changes expected for open ocean ecosystems by the end of the century. Among harmful algae, i.e. some species and/or strains of Cyanobacteria, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae, the occurrence of a CO 2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) is the most frequent mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in natural waters in equilibrium with the present atmosphere (400 μmol CO 2 mol −1 total gas), with varying phenotypic modification of the CCM. No data on CCMs are available for Raphidophyceae or the brown tide Pelagophyceae. Several HAB species and/or strains respond to increased CO 2 concentrations with increases in growth rate and/or cellular toxin content, however, others are unaffected. Beyond the effects of altered C concentrations and speciation on HABs, changes in pH in natural waters are likely to have profound effects on algal physiology. This review outlines the implications of changes in inorganic cycling for HABs in coastal zones, and reviews the knowns and unknowns with regard to how HABs can be expected to ocean acidification. We further point to the large regions of uncertainty with regard to this evolving field.",
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    author = "Raven, {John A.} and Gobler, {Christopher S.} and Hansen, {Per Juel}",
    year = "2019",
    month = "4",
    day = "6",
    doi = "10.1016/j.hal.2019.03.012",
    language = "English",
    journal = "Harmful Algae",
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    Dynamic CO 2 and pH levels in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters : Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms. / Raven, John A.; Gobler, Christopher S.; Hansen, Per Juel.

    In: Harmful Algae, 06.04.2019.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T2 - Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms

    AU - Raven, John A.

    AU - Gobler, Christopher S.

    AU - Hansen, Per Juel

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    Y1 - 2019/4/6

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    AB - Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 results in higher equilibrium concentrations of dissolved CO 2 in natural waters, with corresponding increases in hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations and decreases in hydroxyl ion and carbonate concentrations. Superimposed on these climate change effects is the dynamic nature of carbon cycling in coastal zones, which can lead to seasonal and diel changes in pH and CO 2 concentrations that can exceed changes expected for open ocean ecosystems by the end of the century. Among harmful algae, i.e. some species and/or strains of Cyanobacteria, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae, the occurrence of a CO 2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) is the most frequent mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in natural waters in equilibrium with the present atmosphere (400 μmol CO 2 mol −1 total gas), with varying phenotypic modification of the CCM. No data on CCMs are available for Raphidophyceae or the brown tide Pelagophyceae. Several HAB species and/or strains respond to increased CO 2 concentrations with increases in growth rate and/or cellular toxin content, however, others are unaffected. Beyond the effects of altered C concentrations and speciation on HABs, changes in pH in natural waters are likely to have profound effects on algal physiology. This review outlines the implications of changes in inorganic cycling for HABs in coastal zones, and reviews the knowns and unknowns with regard to how HABs can be expected to ocean acidification. We further point to the large regions of uncertainty with regard to this evolving field.

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    KW - Eutrophication

    KW - Experimental evolution

    KW - Global warming

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    KW - Ocean acidification

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    DO - 10.1016/j.hal.2019.03.012

    M3 - Article

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