Early-Years Multi-Grade Classes and Pupil Attainment

Daniel Borbely, Markus Gehrsitz (Lead / Corresponding author), Stuart McIntyre, Gennaro Rossi, Graeme Roy

Research output: Working paper/PreprintDiscussion paper

80 Downloads (Pure)


We study the effect of exposure to older, more experienced classroom peers resulting from the widespread use of multi-grade classes in Scottish primary schools. For identification, we exploit that a class-planning algorithm quasi-randomly assigns groups of pupils to multi-grade classes. We find that school-starters benefit from exposure to second-graders in measures of numeracy and literacy. We find no evidence that these gains are driven by smaller class sizes or more parental input. While short-lived, these benefits accrue independent of socioeconomic background, to boys and girls alike, and do not come at the
expense of older peers from the preceding cohort.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Publication series

NameIZA Discussion Papers Series


  • multi-grade classes
  • cognitive skills
  • peer effects
  • class-size


Dive into the research topics of 'Early-Years Multi-Grade Classes and Pupil Attainment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
  • Early Years Multi-grade Classes and Pupil Attainment

    Borbely, D., Gehrsitz, M., McIntyre, S., Rossi, G. & Roy, G., Dec 2023, In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics . 85, 6, p. 1295-1319 25 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Open Access
    1 Citation (Scopus)
    42 Downloads (Pure)

Cite this