Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Abstract

    Objectives Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular events in observational studies. It is unclear whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce blood pressure, and, if so, by how much.

    Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether vitamin D reduces blood pressure. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and the Cochrane library were searched, supplemented by searches of grey literature, unpublished trials and references from included studies. Studies were assessed by two reviewers independently according to a prespecified protocol. Interventions included activated vitamin D, unactivated vitamin D2 and D3 and ultraviolet B radiation.

    Results Eleven randomized, controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies were small and of variable methodological quality. Mean baseline blood pressure was more than 140/90 mmHg in eight studies. Meta-analysis of these eight studies showed a nonsignificant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the vitamin D group compared with placebo [-3.6mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.0 to 0.7]. A small, statistically significant reduction was seen in diastolic blood pressure (-3.1mmHg, 95% CI -5.5 to -0.6). Subgroup analysis suggested that unactivated vitamin D produced a greater fall in systolic blood pressure than activated vitamin D (-6.2mmHg, 95% CI -12.32 to -0.04, vs. +0.7 mmHg, 95% CI -4.8 to 6.2). No reduction in blood pressure was seen in studies examining patients who were normotensive at baseline.

    Conclusion We found weak evidence to support a small effect of vitamin D on blood pressure in studies of hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 27: 1948-1954 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1948-1954
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Hypertension
    Volume27
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009

    Keywords

    • blood pressure
    • hypertension
    • systematic review
    • vitamin D
    • LONG-TERM TREATMENT
    • RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIALS
    • CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS
    • PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
    • DOUBLE-BLIND
    • D SUPPLEMENTATION
    • D ALPHACALCIDOL
    • 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D LEVELS
    • SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D
    • CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

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