2-Monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and its isomer 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) are widespread food contaminants. 3-MCPD has been classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen, whereas very limited toxicological data are available for 2-MCPD. Animal studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle are target organs of 2-MCPD. Oxidative stress may play a role in this process, and the potential of 3-MCPD to induce oxidative stress in vivo has already been demonstrated. To investigate the potential of 2-MCPD to induce oxidative stress in vivo, a 28-day oral feeding study in male HOTT reporter mice was conducted. This mouse model allows monitoring substance-induced oxidative stress in various target organs on the basis of Hmox1 promoter activation. Repeated daily doses of up to 100 mg 2-MCPD/kg body weight did not result in substantial toxicity. Furthermore, the highest dose of 2-MCPD had only minor effects on oxidative stress in kidney and testes, whereas brain, heart and skeletal muscle were not affected. Additionally, 2-MCPD caused only mild changes in the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and only slightly affected the redox status of the redox-sensor protein DJ-1. Thus, the data indicate that 2-MCPD, in contrast to its isomer 3-MCPD, does not lead to a considerable induction of oxidative stress in male mice.
- Hmox1 activation
- Oxidative stress