Encystation: the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes

Pauline Schaap (Lead / Corresponding author), Christina Schilde

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

6 Citations (Scopus)
72 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number000653
Pages (from-to)727-739
Number of pages13
JournalMicrobiology
Volume164
Issue number5
Early online date5 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Fingerprint

Amoebozoa
Eukaryota
Cysts
Disease Eradication
Genes
Acanthamoeba
Entamoeba histolytica
Dictyostelium
Droughts
Phylogeny
Starvation
Spores
Fungi
Genome
Health
Proteins

Keywords

  • Encystment
  • Entamoeba
  • Acanthamoeba
  • Dictyostelium
  • cyclic AMP signalling
  • histidine kinase
  • Cyclic AMP signalling
  • Histidine kinase

Cite this

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title = "Encystation: the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes",
abstract = "Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.",
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Encystation : the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes. / Schaap, Pauline (Lead / Corresponding author); Schilde, Christina.

In: Microbiology, Vol. 164, No. 5, 000653, 01.05.2018, p. 727-739.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Encystation

T2 - the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes

AU - Schaap, Pauline

AU - Schilde, Christina

N1 - P. S. and C. S. are funded by ERC Advanced grant 742288 and Wellcome grant 100293/Z/12/Z.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.

AB - Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.

KW - Encystment

KW - Entamoeba

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KW - Dictyostelium

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KW - histidine kinase

KW - Cyclic AMP signalling

KW - Histidine kinase

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DO - 10.1099/mic.0.000653

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JO - Microbiology

JF - Microbiology

SN - 1350-0872

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M1 - 000653

ER -