Energy consumption during simulated minimal access surgery with and without using an armrest

Mansoor Jafri, Stuart Brown, Graham Arnold, Rami Abboud, Weijie Wang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    Background Minimal access surgery (MAS) can be a lengthy procedure when compared to open surgery and therefore surgeon fatigue becomes an important issue and surgeons may expose themselves to chronic injuries and
    making errors. There have been few studies on this topic and they have used only questionnaires and electromyography rather than direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of an armrest could reduce the EE of surgeons during MAS.
    Method Sixteen surgeons performed simulated MAS with and without using an armrest. They were required to perform the time-consuming task of using scissors to cut a rubber glove through its top layer in a triangular fashion
    with the help of a laparoscopic camera. Energy consumptions were measured using the Oxycon Mobile system during all the procedures. Error rate and duration time for simulated surgery were recorded. After performing the
    simulated surgery, subjects scored how comfortable they felt using the armrest.
    Results It was found that O2 uptake (VO2) was 5 % less when surgeons used the armrest. The error rate when performing the procedure with the armrest was 35 % compared with 42.29 % without the armrest. Additionally, comfort levels with the armrest were higher than without the armrest. 75 % of surgeons indicated a preference for using the armrest during the simulated surgery.
    Conclusion The armrest provides support for surgeons and cuts energy consumption during simulated MAS.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalSurgical Endoscopy
    Early online date6 Oct 2012
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


    • Laparoscopic surgery
    • Oxygen consumption


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