Energy transformation during erect and ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking by humans with implications for the evolution of bipedalism

W. J. Wang, R. H. Crompton, Y. Li, M. M. Gunther

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    36 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We have previously reported that predictive dynamic modeling suggests that the ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait, which some attribute to Australopithecus afarensis AL-288-1, would have been much more expensive in mechanical terms for this hominid than an upright gait. Normal walking by modern adult humans owes much of its efficiency to conservation of energy by transformation between its potential and kinetic states. These findings suggest the question if, and to what extent, energy transformation exists in ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait. This study calculates energy transformation in humans walking upright, at three different speeds, and walking ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’. Kinematic data were gathered from video sequences and kinetic (ground reaction force) data from synchronous forceplate measurement. Applying Newtonian mechanics to our experimental data, the fluctuations of kinetic and potential energy in the body centre of mass were obtained and the effects of energy transformation evaluated and compared. In erect walking the fluctuations of two forms of energy are indeed largely out-of-phase, so that energy transformation occurs and total energy is conserved. In ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking, however, the fluctuations of the kinetic and potential energy are much more in-phase, so that energy transformation occurs to a much lesser extent. Among all modes of walking the highest energy recovery is obtained in subjectively ‘comfortable’ walking, the next highest in subjectively ‘fast’ or ‘slow’ walking, and the least lowest in ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking. The results imply that if ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait was indeed habitually practiced by early bipedal hominids, a very substantial (and in our view as yet unidentified) selective advantage would have had to accrue, to offset the selective disadvantages of ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait in terms of energy transformation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)563-579
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Human Evolution
    Volume44
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2003

    Fingerprint

    bipedalism
    energy conversion
    knees
    walking
    hips
    energy
    gait
    kinetics
    hominid
    Hominidae
    fluctuation
    potential energy
    kinetic energy
    energy recovery
    energy conservation
    kinematics
    mechanics
    mechanic

    Keywords

    • Energy exchange
    • Phase-shift
    • ‘Bent-hip, bent-knee’
    • Erect walking
    • Evolution of bipedalism

    Cite this

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    title = "Energy transformation during erect and ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking by humans with implications for the evolution of bipedalism",
    abstract = "We have previously reported that predictive dynamic modeling suggests that the ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait, which some attribute to Australopithecus afarensis AL-288-1, would have been much more expensive in mechanical terms for this hominid than an upright gait. Normal walking by modern adult humans owes much of its efficiency to conservation of energy by transformation between its potential and kinetic states. These findings suggest the question if, and to what extent, energy transformation exists in ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait. This study calculates energy transformation in humans walking upright, at three different speeds, and walking ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’. Kinematic data were gathered from video sequences and kinetic (ground reaction force) data from synchronous forceplate measurement. Applying Newtonian mechanics to our experimental data, the fluctuations of kinetic and potential energy in the body centre of mass were obtained and the effects of energy transformation evaluated and compared. In erect walking the fluctuations of two forms of energy are indeed largely out-of-phase, so that energy transformation occurs and total energy is conserved. In ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking, however, the fluctuations of the kinetic and potential energy are much more in-phase, so that energy transformation occurs to a much lesser extent. Among all modes of walking the highest energy recovery is obtained in subjectively ‘comfortable’ walking, the next highest in subjectively ‘fast’ or ‘slow’ walking, and the least lowest in ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking. The results imply that if ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait was indeed habitually practiced by early bipedal hominids, a very substantial (and in our view as yet unidentified) selective advantage would have had to accrue, to offset the selective disadvantages of ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ gait in terms of energy transformation.",
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    Energy transformation during erect and ‘bent-hip, bent-knee’ walking by humans with implications for the evolution of bipedalism. / Wang, W. J.; Crompton, R. H.; Li, Y.; Gunther, M. M.

    In: Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2003, p. 563-579.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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