Background: Clinical outcomes from non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are partly determined by the quality of initial interventions. To improve and standardise treatment for cancer, Scotland implemented a national Quality Performance Indicator (QPI) programme for bladder cancer (BC).
Objective: To evaluate compliance with specific quality indicators (QIs) related to transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and to understand clinical outcomes from NMIBC following the introduction of the QPI programme.
Design, setting, and participants: Within a robust governance framework, 12 mandatory evidence-based QPIs were implemented nationally in April 2014. We report prospectively collected data for all new BC patients (between April 2014 and March 2017). We include follow-up data for 2689 (63%) patients.
Intervention: The TURBT-related QPIs were (1) using a bladder diagram, (2) single post-TURBT instillation of mitomycin C (SPI-MMC), (3) detrusor muscle (DM) in the specimen, and (4) early re-TURBT in high-risk NMIBC.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We measured compliance with these QPIs and (1) recurrence rate at first follow-up cystoscopy (RRFFC), (2) rates of residual cancer, and (3) pT2 cancer at re-TURBT. Associations between QPI compliance, tumour features, and outcomes were assessed with multivariable logistic regression models.
Results and limitations: Among 4246 new BC patients, SPI-MMC was used in 67% (2029/3023) NMIBC patients. In 1860 NMIBC patients undergoing TURBT, RRFFC, rate of residual cancer, and rate of pT2 at re-TURBT were 13% (116/888), 33% (212/653), and 2.9% (19/653), respectively. SPI-MMC was associated with lower RRFFC, independent of all variables including hospital volume and surgeon. Presence of DM in the specimen halved the likelihood of residual disease in pT1 cancers. The main limitation is the lack of a pre-QPI introduction cohort for comparison.
Conclusions: The implementation of a QI programme in Scotland appears to facilitate high-quality TURBT, which in a real-world setting is associated with low early recurrence/residual cancer and accurate pathological staging.
Patient summary: Following the first 3 yr of implementing a novel Quality Performance Indicator (QPI) programme in Scotland, we assessed compliance and outcomes in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Evaluating over 4000 new bladder cancer patients, we found that the QPI programme was associated with low recurrence and accurate staging following the initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour. We evaluated the value of implementing a pragmatic national Quality Performance Indicator (QPI) programme for bladder cancer. Our results from the first 3 yr since implementation revealed high levels of compliance with the QPIs for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which was associated with a low risk of early recurrence and accurate pathological staging following the initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour.
- Bladder cancer
- Evidence-based medicine
- Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Quality indicators
- Transurethral resection of bladder tumour