Environmental Risk Factors in the Etiology of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

Heba J Sabbagh (Lead / Corresponding author), Najlaa M Alamoudi, Fatma Dawood Abdulhameed, Nicola Innes, Jumana Y Al-Aama, Tarig Hummaida, Manal Almalik, Doaa A El Derwi, Peter A Mossey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Nonsyndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) etiology is multifactorial and heterogeneous. This study aimed to identify environmental risk factors related to NSOFC in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia.

METHODS: A case-control study carried out in seven hospitals in two main cities (Jeddah and Maddina) over 2 years on parents of 112 infants with NSOFC (infants were also examined) and 138 infant controls, matched for age (□ months), gender, and location, completed a questionnaire on 3-month pregestation and first trimester events.

RESULTS: There was significantly increased NSOFC risk with twin pregnancies (P = .01, odds ratio [OR] = 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15 to 78.4), maternal antibiotic use (P = .021, OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.11 to 6.62), antiemetic medication (P = .005, OR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.3 to 6), severe morning sickness (P = .006, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.34 to 9.65), illness (P = .009, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.17 to 4.08), common cold/flu (P = .003, OR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.48 to 7.58), Jorak smoking (P = .004, OR = 14.07, 95% CI: 1.55 to 128.1), and passive smoking (P = .05, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.05 to 4.01). Reduced NSOFC risk was found with calcium supplementation (P = .02, OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.88), incense use (P = .03, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.98), and maternal drinking water, with Zamzam water (which contains a high concentration of minerals) showing a significant protective effect compared with tap water (P = .01, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.6) and bottled water (P = .02, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.57).

CONCLUSION: Twin births, maternal antibiotic use, antiemetic medication, severe morning sickness, common cold/flu, Jorak smoking, and passive smoking were associated with infants born with NSOFC. Calcium supplementation, incense use, and Zamzam water reduced the risk of NSOFC, raising the possibility of community preventive programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)435-443
Number of pages9
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

Keywords

  • cleft lip
  • Etiology
  • orofacial cleft
  • Saudi Arabia

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Environmental Risk Factors in the Etiology of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this