European Code against Cancer 4th Edition

Physical activity and cancer

Michael Leitzmann, Hilary Powers, Annie S. Anderson, Chiara Scoccianti, Franco Berrino, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Michele Cecchini, Carolina Espina, Timothy J. Key, Teresa Norat, Martin Wiseman, Isabelle Romieu (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    Abstract

    Physical activity is a complex, multidimensional behavior, the precise measurement of which is challenging in free-living individuals. Nonetheless, representative survey data show that 35% of the European adult population is physically inactive. Inadequate levels of physical activity are disconcerting given substantial epidemiologic evidence showing that physical activity is associated with decreased risks of colon, endometrial, and breast cancers. For example, insufficient physical activity levels are thought to cause 9% of breast cancer cases and 10% of colon cancer cases in Europe. By comparison, the evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity is less consistent for cancers of the lung, pancreas, ovary, prostate, kidney, and stomach. The biologic pathways underlying the association between physical activity and cancer risk are incompletely defined, but potential etiologic pathways include insulin resistance, growth factors, adipocytokines, steroid hormones, and immune function. In recent years, sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential independent determinant of cancer risk. In cancer survivors, physical activity has shown positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem. Physical activity may also carry benefits regarding cancer survival, but more evidence linking increased physical activity to prolonged cancer survival is needed. Future studies using new technologies - such as accelerometers and e-tools - will contribute to improved assessments of physical activity. Such advancements in physical activity measurement will help clarify the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk and survival. Taking the overall existing evidence into account, the fourth edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people be physically active in everyday life and limit the time spent sitting.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)S46-S55
    Number of pages10
    JournalCancer Epidemiology
    Volume39
    Issue numberSuppl. 1
    Early online date15 Jul 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

    Fingerprint

    Exercise
    Neoplasms
    Colonic Neoplasms
    Survival
    Breast Neoplasms
    Adipokines
    Physical Fitness
    R Factors
    Endometrial Neoplasms
    Body Composition
    Pancreatic Neoplasms
    Self Concept
    Survivors
    Insulin Resistance
    Prostate
    Ovary
    Lung Neoplasms
    Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
    Stomach
    Anxiety

    Keywords

    • Adult
    • European Union
    • Exercise therapy
    • Guidelines as topic
    • Humans
    • Neoplasms
    • Quality of life
    • Risk reduction behavior
    • Journal article
    • Research support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Cite this

    Leitzmann, M., Powers, H., Anderson, A. S., Scoccianti, C., Berrino, F., Boutron-Ruault, M-C., ... Romieu, I. (2015). European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Physical activity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, 39 (Suppl. 1), S46-S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.03.009
    Leitzmann, Michael ; Powers, Hilary ; Anderson, Annie S. ; Scoccianti, Chiara ; Berrino, Franco ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine ; Cecchini, Michele ; Espina, Carolina ; Key, Timothy J. ; Norat, Teresa ; Wiseman, Martin ; Romieu, Isabelle. / European Code against Cancer 4th Edition : Physical activity and cancer. In: Cancer Epidemiology. 2015 ; Vol. 39 , No. Suppl. 1. pp. S46-S55.
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    abstract = "Physical activity is a complex, multidimensional behavior, the precise measurement of which is challenging in free-living individuals. Nonetheless, representative survey data show that 35{\%} of the European adult population is physically inactive. Inadequate levels of physical activity are disconcerting given substantial epidemiologic evidence showing that physical activity is associated with decreased risks of colon, endometrial, and breast cancers. For example, insufficient physical activity levels are thought to cause 9{\%} of breast cancer cases and 10{\%} of colon cancer cases in Europe. By comparison, the evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity is less consistent for cancers of the lung, pancreas, ovary, prostate, kidney, and stomach. The biologic pathways underlying the association between physical activity and cancer risk are incompletely defined, but potential etiologic pathways include insulin resistance, growth factors, adipocytokines, steroid hormones, and immune function. In recent years, sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential independent determinant of cancer risk. In cancer survivors, physical activity has shown positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem. Physical activity may also carry benefits regarding cancer survival, but more evidence linking increased physical activity to prolonged cancer survival is needed. Future studies using new technologies - such as accelerometers and e-tools - will contribute to improved assessments of physical activity. Such advancements in physical activity measurement will help clarify the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk and survival. Taking the overall existing evidence into account, the fourth edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people be physically active in everyday life and limit the time spent sitting.",
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    Leitzmann, M, Powers, H, Anderson, AS, Scoccianti, C, Berrino, F, Boutron-Ruault, M-C, Cecchini, M, Espina, C, Key, TJ, Norat, T, Wiseman, M & Romieu, I 2015, 'European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Physical activity and cancer', Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 39 , no. Suppl. 1, pp. S46-S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.03.009

    European Code against Cancer 4th Edition : Physical activity and cancer. / Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Anderson, Annie S.; Scoccianti, Chiara; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J.; Norat, Teresa; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle (Lead / Corresponding author).

    In: Cancer Epidemiology, Vol. 39 , No. Suppl. 1, 12.2015, p. S46-S55.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - European Code against Cancer 4th Edition

    T2 - Physical activity and cancer

    AU - Leitzmann, Michael

    AU - Powers, Hilary

    AU - Anderson, Annie S.

    AU - Scoccianti, Chiara

    AU - Berrino, Franco

    AU - Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    AU - Cecchini, Michele

    AU - Espina, Carolina

    AU - Key, Timothy J.

    AU - Norat, Teresa

    AU - Wiseman, Martin

    AU - Romieu, Isabelle

    N1 - Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    PY - 2015/12

    Y1 - 2015/12

    N2 - Physical activity is a complex, multidimensional behavior, the precise measurement of which is challenging in free-living individuals. Nonetheless, representative survey data show that 35% of the European adult population is physically inactive. Inadequate levels of physical activity are disconcerting given substantial epidemiologic evidence showing that physical activity is associated with decreased risks of colon, endometrial, and breast cancers. For example, insufficient physical activity levels are thought to cause 9% of breast cancer cases and 10% of colon cancer cases in Europe. By comparison, the evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity is less consistent for cancers of the lung, pancreas, ovary, prostate, kidney, and stomach. The biologic pathways underlying the association between physical activity and cancer risk are incompletely defined, but potential etiologic pathways include insulin resistance, growth factors, adipocytokines, steroid hormones, and immune function. In recent years, sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential independent determinant of cancer risk. In cancer survivors, physical activity has shown positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem. Physical activity may also carry benefits regarding cancer survival, but more evidence linking increased physical activity to prolonged cancer survival is needed. Future studies using new technologies - such as accelerometers and e-tools - will contribute to improved assessments of physical activity. Such advancements in physical activity measurement will help clarify the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk and survival. Taking the overall existing evidence into account, the fourth edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people be physically active in everyday life and limit the time spent sitting.

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    KW - Exercise therapy

    KW - Guidelines as topic

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    KW - Neoplasms

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    KW - Risk reduction behavior

    KW - Journal article

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    Leitzmann M, Powers H, Anderson AS, Scoccianti C, Berrino F, Boutron-Ruault M-C et al. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Physical activity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiology. 2015 Dec;39 (Suppl. 1):S46-S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.03.009