Evaluation of a Novel Broad-Spectrum PCR-Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Identification of Cutaneous Wart-Associated Human Papillomavirus Types

Maurits N. C. de Koning, Jan ter Schegget, Just A. H. Eekhof, Marga Kamp, Bernhard Kleter, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Mariet C. W. Feltkamp, Jan Nico Bouwes Bavinck, Karin J. Purdie, Christopher B. Bunker, Charlotte M. Proby, Rhonda Meys, Catherine A. Harwood, Wim G. V. Quint

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    A large number of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, distributed over five papillomavirus genera, are detectable in the skin. HPV types belonging to the alpha, gamma, and mu genera have been detected in cutaneous warts. A state-of-the-art HPV genotyping assay for these cutaneous wart-associated HPV types does not exist although warts constitute a highly prevalent skin condition, especially in children (33%) and organ transplant recipients (45%). Cutaneous warts are again the focus of attention as their clinical relevance rises with the increasing number of chronically immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a DNA-based genotyping system for all known cutaneous wart-related HPV types using PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. The broad-spectrum PCR amplified DNA of all known wart-associated HPV types from the genera alpha (HPVs 2, 3, 7, 10, 27, 28, 29, 40, 43, 57, 77, 91, and 94), gamma (HPVs 4, 65, 95, 48, 50, 60, and 88), mu (HPVs 1 and 63), and nu (HPV41). The probes were evaluated using plasmid HPV DNA and a panel of 45 previously characterized cutaneous wart biopsy specimens showing high specificity. HPV was also identified in 96% of 100 swabs from nongenital cutaneous warts. HPV types 1, 2, 27, and 57 were the most prevalent HPV types detected in 89% of the swabs. In conclusion, this Luminex-based genotyping system identifies all known cutaneous wart HPV types including phylogenetically related types, is highly HPV type specific, and is suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1706-1711
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May 2010


    • DNA
    • VIRUS

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