Evaluation of Textbook Outcome as a Composite Quality Measure of Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

James Lucocq (Lead / Corresponding author), John Scollay, Pradeep Patil

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)
    22 Downloads (Pure)


    Importance: A textbook outcome (TO) is a composite quality measure that incorporates multiple perioperative events to reflect the most desirable outcome. The use of TO increases the event rate, captures more outcomes to reflect patient experience, and can be used as a benchmark for quality improvement.

    Objectives: To introduce the concept of TO to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), propose the TO criteria, and identify characteristics associated with TO failure.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was performed at 3 surgical units in a single health board in the United Kingdom. Participants included all patients undergoing elective LC between January 1, 2015, and January 1, 2020. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2015, to January 1, 2020.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The TO criteria were defined based on review of existing TO metrics in the literature for other surgical procedures. A TO was defined as an unremarkable elective LC without conversion to open cholecystectomy, subtotal cholecystectomy, intraoperative complication, postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥2), postoperative imaging, postoperative intervention, prolonged length of stay (>2 days), readmission within 100 days, or mortality. The rate of TOs was reported. Reasons for TO failure were reported, and preoperative characteristics were compared between TO and TO failure groups using both univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions.

    Results: A total of 2166 patients underwent elective LC (median age, 54 [range, 13-92] years; 1579 [72.9%] female). One thousand eight hundred fifty-one patients (85.5%) achieved a TO with an unremarkable perioperative course. Reasons for TO failure (315 patients [14.5%]) included conversion to open procedure (25 [7.9%]), subtotal cholecystectomy (59 [18.7%]), intraoperative complications (40 [12.7%]), postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥2; 92 [29.2%]), postoperative imaging (182 [57.8%]), postoperative intervention (57 [18.1%]), prolonged length of stay (>2 days; 142 [45.1%]), readmission (130 [41.3%]), and mortality (1 [0.3%]). Variables associated with TO failure included increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (odds ratio [OR], 2.55 [95 CI, 1.69-3.85]; P <.001), increasing number of prior biliary-related admissions (OR, 2.68 [95% CI, 1.36-5.27]; P =.004), acute cholecystitis (OR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.08-1.85]; P =.01), preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (OR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.46-2.92]; P <.001), and preoperative cholecystostomy (OR, 3.22 [95% CI, 1.54-6.76]; P =.002).

    Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that applying the concept of TO to elective LC provides a benchmark to identify suboptimal patterns of care and enables institutions to identify strategies for quality improvement.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere2232171
    Number of pages10
    JournalJAMA Network Open
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Sept 2022


    • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    • elective surgical procedure
    • treatment outcome
    • morbidity
    • informed consent

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Medicine


    Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of Textbook Outcome as a Composite Quality Measure of Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this