Examining corruption risks in the procurement and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines in select states in Nigeria

Obinna Onwujekwe, Charles Orjiakor, Pamela Ogbozor, Ifunanya Agu, Prince Agwu, Tom Wright, Dina Balabanova, Jillian Kohler (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Public health emergencies raise significant concerns about corruption and accountability; however, these concerns can manifest in different ways across diverse locations. For instance, more developed countries with a stronger rule of law may experience more corruption in vaccine procurement, whereas developing countries may experience more corruption at the point of distribution and delivery to end users. This research focuses on corruption concerns in Nigeria, specifically examining the procurement and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: This paper utilizes a scoping review and a qualitative research approach. Key informants (n = 40) involved in the procurement and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines across two states in Nigeria were interviewed. Findings from the scoping review were summarized, and collected data were inductively coded and analysed in themes, revealing clear examples of implementation irregularities and corruption in the country’s COVID-19 vaccination processes. Results: Vaccination programme budgeting processes were unclear, and payment irregularities were frequently observed, resulting in vaccinators soliciting informal payments while in the field. Recruitment and engagement of vaccination personnel was opaque, while target vaccination rates incentivized data falsification during periods of vaccine hesitancy. Accountability mechanisms, such as health worker supervision, vaccination data review, and additional technical support provided by donors were implemented but not effective at preventing corruption among frontline workers. Conclusions: Future accountability measures should be evidence-driven based on findings from this research. Personnel recruitment, contracting, budgeting, and remuneration should focus on transparency and accountability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number141
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2023


  • Accountability
  • Coronavirus
  • Corruption
  • COVID-19
  • Transparency
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Health Policy


Dive into the research topics of 'Examining corruption risks in the procurement and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines in select states in Nigeria'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this