Extending the phenotypes associated with TRIO gene variants in a cohort of 25 patients and review of the literature

Gabriella Gazdagh, David Hunt, Anna Maria Cueto Gonzalez, Monserrat Pons Rodriguez, Ayeshah Chaudhry, Marcos Madruga, Fleur Vansenne, Deborah Shears, Aurore Curie, Eva-Lena Stattin, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Slavica Trajkova, Elena Sukarova Angelovska, Catherine McWilliam, Philip R. Wyatt, Mary O'Driscoll, Giles Atton, Anke K. Bergman, Pia Zacher, Leena D. MewasinghAntonio Gonzalez-Meneses López, Olga Alonso-Luengo, Htoo A. Wai, Ottilie Rohde, Pauline Boiroux, Anne Debant, Susanne Schmidt, Diana Baralle

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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The TRIO gene encodes a rho guanine exchange factor, the function of which is to exchange GDP to GTP, and hence to activate Rho GTPases, and has been described to impact neurodevelopment. Specific genotype-to-phenotype correlations have been established previously describing striking differentiating features seen in variants located in specific domains of the TRIO gene that are associated with opposite effects on RAC1 activity. Currently, 32 cases with a TRIO gene alteration have been published in the medical literature. Here, we report an additional 25, previously unreported individuals who possess heterozygous TRIO variants and we review the literature. In addition, functional studies were performed on the c.4394A > G (N1465S) and c.6244-2A > G TRIO variants to provide evidence for their pathogenicity. Variants reported by the current study include missense variants, truncating nonsense variants, and an intragenic deletion. Clinical features were previously described and included developmental delay, learning difficulties, microcephaly, macrocephaly, seizures, behavioral issues (aggression, stereotypies), skeletal problems including short, tapering fingers and scoliosis, dental problems (overcrowding/delayed eruption), and variable facial features. Here, we report clinical features that have not been described previously, including specific structural brain malformations such as abnormalities of the corpus callosum and ventriculomegaly, additional psychological and dental issues along with a more recognizable facial gestalt linked to the specific domains of the TRIO gene and the effect of the variant upon the function of the encoded protein. This current study further strengthens the genotype-to-phenotype correlation that was previously established and extends the range of phenotypes to include structural brain abnormalities, additional skeletal, dental, and psychiatric issues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1722-1740
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Issue number7
Early online date29 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • GEFD
  • macrocephaly
  • microcephaly
  • phenotype
  • spectrin
  • TRIO gene


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