Extra-oral appliances in orthodontic treatment

Mohammed Almuzian, Fahad Alharbi, Grant McIntyre (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
1520 Downloads (Pure)


Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class III malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-82
Number of pages7
JournalDental Update
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016


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