Nicholas Wade (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Icons are pictorial images that are eye-cons: They provide distillations of objects or ideas into simple pictorial shapes. They create the impression of representing that what cannot be presented. Iconography can refer to representations of people, and it has been applied to visual artists and scientists: Their portraits are often reproduced in histories of art and science. Until the nineteenth century, artists were mostly represented in pigment (paintings) and scientists on paper (engravings). After the birth of photography, both have been captured by the camera and more recently manipulated by computer. Eye-conographs are 'perceptual portraits' of artists and scientists; they combine facial features with the styles and phenomena with which the artists and scientists are associated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Art and science
  • Icons
  • Illusions
  • Perceptual portraits
  • Vision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • History
  • Applied Psychology


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