Eye-pointing Classification Scale (EpCS)

Michael T. Clarke, Jenefer Sargent, Rosemary Cooper, Gabriella Aberbach, Laura McLaughlin, Gurveen Panesar, Amie Woghiren, Tom Griffiths, Katie Price, Caroline Rose, John Swettenham

Research output: Non-textual formData set/Database


The Eye-pointing Classification Scale (EpCS; Clarke et al., 2022) was developed as a new classification scale to describe looking behaviors (gaze fixations and gaze shifts) in relation to eye-pointing, suitable for use with non-speaking children with bilateral cerebral palsy (GMFCS IV and V). An initial draft of the scale was developed as a result of literature review. Subsequent expert evaluation of content, style and structure indicated that no further refinement was required. The resulting 21-item measure was administered to a sample of children with bilateral cerebral palsy, aged 3-12 years. Results concerning reliability and validity were reported for this measure. The authors note while reliability analysis proved very positive, a limitation is that reliability testing was not also carried out by school staff and parents. The lack of agreement in rating for level I in this group of children represents a limitation in reliability testing for this level.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherAPA PsycNet Direct
Media of outputOther
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Functional vision
  • Gaze
  • Cerebral palsy


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