Fabrication of two flow phantoms for Doppler ultrasound imaging

Xiaowei Zhou, David A. Kenwright, Shiying Wang, John A. Hossack, Peter R. Hoskins

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Flow phantoms are widely used in studies associated with Doppler ultrasound measurements, acting as an effective experimental validation system in cardiovascular related research and in new algorithm / instrumentation development. The development of materials that match the acoustic and mechanical properties of vascular system are of great interest while designing
flow phantoms. Although recipes that meet the flow phantom standard defined by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61685 are already available in the literature, standard procedure of material preparations and phantom fabrications have not been well established. In this study, two types of flow
phantom, with and without blood vessel mimic, are described in details in terms of the material preparation and phantom fabrication. The phantom materials chosen for the two phantoms are from published phantom studies and their physical properties have already been investigated previously. Both flow phantoms have been scanned by ultrasound scanners and images from
different modes are presented. These phantoms may be used in the validation and characterization of Doppler ultrasound measurements in blood vessels with diameter above 1 mm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-65
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Issue number1
Early online date1 Dec 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Ultrasound
  • vessel phantom
  • blood vessel mimic
  • wall-less phantom
  • tissue mimicking material
  • blood mimicking fluid


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